You are one of the few thinkers I have come cross that know about the original intent of the electoral college: it was two indirect elections to find the president.
My sense of history is that the founding fathers disdained political parties PERIOD. They wanted all the elected representatives to be of independent thinkers and vote to their conscience or wishes of their constiuency, not tied to any party line. Even though the FF had only the English parliament as an example, they saw the flaws of the party system. But there was a historical expediency required at the time, so the constitution was written without clauses to prohibit political parties.
But the fact that the FF came up with two institutions being indirectly elected (the Senate and the President) at that time is quite profound.
You mentioned the problems dealing with the national budget in the USA. I think we have realize that these problems just might be a result of a system that was designed for NO political parties and two out of three legislative institutions being indirectly elected. When the parties formulated and the two institution became directly elected, is it really fair to say that the budgetary process in the USA does not work well?